Hydrate Well contains citrate in addition to magnesium and bicarbonate. Together with magnesium, the citrate in Hydrate Well is beneficial to health. In the body, citrate directs some products of metabolism into the pentose phosphate pathway in body cells. The pentose phosphate pathway is a major biochemical pathway in cells and produces a compound known as NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). Amongst other uses, NADPH is needed to supply reduced glutathione to cells which is a major antioxidant in the defence against oxidative damage (see reference below).
The pentose phosphate pathway also provides precursors for nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) synthesis. Indeed, the pentose phosphate pathway provides the only known path for the formation of pentose 5-phosphate – a five carbon sugar essential to DNA and RNA synthesis. [In nucleic acid structure, the five carbon sugar is called ribose 5-phosphate – hence, the names ribo(se)nucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribo(se)nucleic acid (DNA).]
The major product-controlling enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway is an enzyme called transketolase. This enzyme is magnesium dependent. The magnesium dependence of transketolase is the reason why the prestigious USA National Institutes of Health (NIH) states in the NIH Magnesium Fact Sheet for Health Professionals that magnesium is required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA and the major antioxidant glutathione.
Citrate also has important physiological functions. Citrate complexes excess calcium into soluble calcium citrate which decreases the prevalence of kidney stones. Also, citrate is metabolised to bicarbonate which is alkaline and tolerated well by the body relative to other alkaline agents.
Metabolism at a Glance 3rd Edition
Salway JG (2004)
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Massachusetts