a significant increase in serum magnesium
significant stabilisation of serum parathyroid hormone
a significant increase in serum potassium
a significant correlation between magnesium and albumin
a subjective improvement in skin quality and energy
When water was consumed that was devoid of calcium and magnesium, there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean level of serum corrected (soluble) calcium concentrations between the beginning of the clinical trial and the end of the clinical trial 12 weeks later (p < 0.05). The consumption of 1.5 to 2 litres of water per day that was devoid of calcium and magnesium diluted blood serum calcium concentrations.
When water was consumed that was devoid of calcium and magnesium, there was a statistically significant trend in the increase of the mean level of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations between the beginning of the clinical trial and the end of the clinical trial 12 weeks later (p = 0.036). Dilution of serum calcium resulted in an increase in serum parathyroid hormone concentrations. This was manifested also by a significant negative correlation between change in parathyroid hormone and change in corrected (soluble) calcium after 12 weeks (p < 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between change in parathyroid hormone and change in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05).
In the clinical trial, water with added magnesium was found to be a source of systemically available magnesium that significantly increased serum magnesium concentrations and significantly stabilised serum parathyroid hormone concentrations. The increase in magnesium was sufficient to provide magnesium as an agonist for the calcium-sensing receptors of the parathyroid glands which resulted in decreased parathyroid hormone release.
It is known that if parathyroid hormone is continuously elevated, even for a few hours, it initiates processes leading to the resorption of bone which overrides any anabolic effects in relation to bone formation. Continuous elevation of parathyroid hormone, with consequent bone resorption, results in osteoporosis. Experimentally, exogenous parathyroid hormone is anabolic for bone when administered at a frequency that permits complete clearance between doses. Indeed, the body pulses parathyroid hormone naturally for anabolic effect. For example, see parathyroid hormone: anabolic and catabolic actions and catabolic and anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on the skeleton. In chronic kidney disease, continuous elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels occur which may be associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Elevated parathyroid hormone increases pro-atherosclerotic lipid abnormalities such as increased VLDL cholesterol. It is known that the parathyroid hormone receptor is expressed extensively in various tissues including blood vessels and cartilage. The receptor on cartilage cells (chondrocytes) is considered to play a role in the development of osteophytes in arthritis. The receptor on stem cells and smooth muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels may play a role in atherosclerosis and vascular calcification.
During normal human aging, progressive deficits in skin, kidney and intestinal function result in progressive inefficiency of vitamin D and calcium metabolism. This causes an increase in the secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands which frequently results in resorption of bone and osteoporosis. It is thought that parathyroid hormone, even within normal reference levels, may be associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Elevated serum parathyroid levels, within normal reference levels, have been correlated to coronary heart disease over a wide range of ages in both men and women. Several moderately large prospective studies have identified high parathyroid hormone concentrations with either hypertension or cardiovascular mortality.
It may be appropriate for an aging population to consume water and beverages that contain magnesium in sufficient amounts to stabilise parathyroid hormone concentrations.